The eye serves as a window through which many valuable clinical observations may be be made. Direct observation of the structures of the fundus through an ophthalmoscope, may show disease of the eye itself, or may reveal abnormalities indicative of disease elsewhere. Here, you can observe some common pathologies and compare them to what you would find in a normal fundus.


Select the pathology you’re interested in from the dropdown menu below.

Normal Fundus

Clear; the central area of the cup is pale.

A normal red/orange color; the macula is dark.

Arteries appear bright red, vein slightly purple. Arterial to venous ratio is about 2 to 3.